Spain in PISA and in sports
It may happen that the reader considers that the P.GDP is not the variable of
interest but the really interesting one is the expenditure in education. This is not
completely true. In fact the variable of interest depends on the goal of the study.
If we are interested in knowing if Spain is below the position it deserves, then
the right variable is the P.GDP. However, if we were interested in the efficiency
of the system (i.e. if the results of Spain are reasonable given the amount of
money invested in education) then, the variable of choice would be the amount
of money spent in education. Therefore, although I will also pay some attention
to the last variable, main interest here will be focussed in the P.GDP.
The investment in education by country was computed as the P.GDP times
the proportion of the GDP spent in education. Those proportions were down-
] on June 3, 2014. In this site, the United Nations Organization
offers, for many countries, the proportion of their GDP that they spent in edu-
cation during several years. For instance, for Spain the series starts on 1976 and
ends on 2010.
This link offers no data for Montenegro and Taiwan. For the remaining
countries, I have taken the most recent value in the corresponding series. This
year goes from 1997 for United Arab Emirates (and 1999 for Jordania, 2001 for
Luxemburg, 2005 for Greece,. . . ) to 2012 for Singapore (and 2011 for Uruguay
and some more).
Previous considerations are also valid for the sports case, with the difference
that it does not seem easy to obtain the money spent by most countries in sport.
Thus, in this case, only the P.GDP will be used as predictor variable.
An additional word on methodology: there are far more countries partici-
pating in the Olympic Games than in the PISA studies. A main goal here is to
compare the result of Spain in the 2012 PISA evaluation with the result in Lon-
don 2012. Thus, I have only considered the results in London of the countries
participating in PISA.
The paper continues as follows: In Section2
, I describe the PISA studies
and analyze the situation of Spain in the 2012 report. Section3
is devoted to
analyze the results of the London 2012 Olympic Games. The paper ends with a
All computations have been carried out with
2. Spain and the 2012 PISA report
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) conducts per-
formance evaluations of 15 years old school students. It was first done in 2000
and it has been repeated every three years under the auspices of the OECD. It
measures the performance on Mathematics, Science, and Reading.
The test is based on the selection of one sample per participant country that
is considered representative of the country. If a country requests it, the study